United States of America
United States of America
The United States Department of Defense, headed by the Secretary of Defense, has three subordinate military departments: the Department of the Air Force, the Department of the Navy, and the Department of the Army . In total, over 2.13 million active duty soldiers, sailors, marines, airmen, and civilian workers, and over 1.1 million national guardsmen and members of the army, navy, air force, and marine reserves are make the US Defence the largest employer in the world.
The Department of Defense is allocated the highest level of budgetary resources among all Federal agencies. This means that more than 50 percent of the total annual Federal discretionary budget is allocated to the defense department.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a department of the federal government, founded in response to the September 11 attacks. Its primary responsibilities are protecting the United States of America and its territories from and responding to terrorist attacks, man-made accidents, and natural disasters. The U.S. Customs and Border Protection and U.S Coast Guard are the agencies using aircraft and heliopters taken up in the Scramble databases.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven American uniformed services. Initially part of the United States Army, the USAF was formed as a separate branch of the military on 18 September 1947 under the National Security Act of 1947. It is the most recent branch of the U.S. military to be formed, and is the largest and most technologically advanced air force in the world. As of 2012 the USAF operates more than 5,500 manned aircraft and 300+ UAVs. To stay the worlds leading Air Force, improvements of systems is a continious proces. The last ten years saw the retirement of the C-130E, C-141B and the F-117A, while new aircraft like the C-130J, C-17A, F-22 and F-35 were introduced or are planned to do so in the near future. Also the USAF is affected by budget cuts, resulting in early retirement of aircraft, units being disbanded and base closures around the world.
US Navy Naval Aviation started its long and proud history at 8 May 1911 with the acquisition of two Curtiss aircraft. Those early aircraft were based in 1914 at Guantanamo Bay in Cuba where they were used in an evaluation program with the Fleet. Since that early start, the Naval Aviation has grown to a wide fleet of aircraft and helicopter. Based on aircraft carriers and ships or deployed to airbases on the mainland, the navy aircraft are deployed to theaters worldwide to conduct missions in support of national and international operations.
The inventory of the US Marine Corps consists of attack and fighter aircraft as well as observation, transport and early warning aircraft. The flying units are all mainly dedicated to supporting the USMC ground forces and occasionally to augment US Navy units if necessary. They are, like the US Navy, part of the Naval Aviation and have their own command. The first aircraft in USMC service was a B1 which came on strength on 22 May 1912 and was based at Tampico, Vera Cruz.
The navy and marine corps have a distinct relationship. In the operational environment, as an expeditionary force specializing in amphibious operations, Marines often embark on Navy ships in order to conduct operations from beyond territorial waters. Marine units deploying as part of a Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF) operate under the command of the existing Marine chain of command.
When the United States Air Force was established as a separate service in 1947, the US Army developed its light planes and rotary wing aircraft to support its ground operations. The Korean War and Vietnam War proved the growing capabilities of these aviation assets to perform a variety of missions not covered by the Air Force. In recognition of the demonstrated increasing importance of aviation in army operations, aviation became a separate branch on 12 April 1983.
The United States Coast Guard operates approximately 204 fixed and rotary wing aircraft and is a service unique among the U.S. military branches for having a maritime law enforcement mission (with jurisdiction in both domestic and international waters) and a federal regulatory agency mission. It is part of the Department of Homeland Security. Its fleet consist of MH-60s, MH-65s, HC-130s, HU-25s, HU-144s and VC-37s operating from 24 different Coast Guard Air Stations and is the federal agency responsible for maritime SAR operations.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is the agency of the United States government that is responsible for the US civilian space program and for aeronautics and aerospace research.